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STUDY 2019 HTM file
Syringe disposal among people who inject drugs before and after the implementation of a syringe services program

Did Florida’s first needle exchange programme result in fewer items of used injecting equipment being left in public places? The answer comes from a walkthrough of Miami neighbourhoods and interviews with people who inject drugs before and after the programme opened its doors.

STUDY 2012 HTM file
A comparison of syringe disposal practices among injection drug users in a city with versus a city without needle and syringe programs

A major concern about needle exchanges is that after use the injecting equipment they supply will be left unsafely disfiguring public areas, but this US study based on a comparison between San Francisco (has legal exchanges) and Miami (exchanges illegal) strongly suggests the opposite.

STUDY 2012 HTM file
An examination of injection drug use trends in Victoria and Vancouver, BC after the closure of Victoria's only fixed-site needle and syringe programme

Until June 2008 Victoria in Canada had a comprehensive extended hours needle exchange at a fixed site in the city. Neighbourhood pressure led to closure, creating a natural experiment in the withdrawal of services. The result seemed to be more sharing of injecting equipment entailing a greater risk of infection.

STUDY 2008 HTM file
Syringe disposal bins: the outcomes of a free trial for city traders in an inner-city municipality Australia

What happens when city authorities ask retail and service premises to host syringe disposal bins in their toilets? There were misgivings, but when the bins meant customers and staff could avoid discarded syringes, they were welcomed and retained, safely disposing of over 2000 syringes a month.